MARC Export -- 044 field usage


The current (identified in testing 2.7.0, but likely in earlier versions) MARC export includes an 044 field in a way that does not follow bibliographic standards and results in errors when attempting to load records into OCLC. This field is only used when the 008/15-17 is insufficient for describing the country of publication. ArchivesSpace's repository field only allows for a single country code, which maps to the 008, making the use of an 044 unnecessary. Because the value is the same in both the 008 and 044, the 044 does nothing to further clarify any information about the country of publication (screenshot attached).

If you try to upload a MARC record to OCLC with an 044 with a single subfield $a (as the ArchivesSpace export creates), you will receive an error because the validation rules require at least two or more $a's (e.g., "OCLC validation error: $a in 044 occurs too few times").

We recommend that the 044 be removed from the ArchivesSpace MARC export unless there is a compelling (and standards compliant) reason for it to be included. We noticed there was discussion of this issue in this story:

From the Library of Congress bibliographic documentation:
Two- or three-character code for the country of the publishing or producing entity when field 008/15-17 (Place of publication, production, or execution) is insufficient to convey full information for an item published or produced in more than one country. Code from: MARC Code List for Countries.



Christine Di Bella
December 23, 2019, 6:37 PM

- I suggest having the Metadata Standards sub-term weigh in on this.

Kevin Schlottmann
January 10, 2020, 2:24 PM

The metadata subgroup of TAC agrees with the reporter and recommends that the 044 field be removed from the MARC exporter.

As Rachel noted, the 044 is incorrect, since country of publication is determined at the repository level and in AS there can only be one. Per MARC rules therefore the country code should (and is, by AS) encoded only in the 008, p15-17. Light testing indicates that the country codes are being exported correctly, including the US code ‘xxu’ as discussed in ANW-673.


Cory Nimer
October 15, 2020, 7:09 PM

MARCXML exports no longer include the 044 field in the ArchivesSpace test environment. The 008 field is still exporting correctly.

October 19, 2020, 10:18 PM

I also tested the MARCXML export from and can confirm that it no longer includes the 044 field.



Noah Geraci


Rachel Searcy

Fix versions